State TWO dangers of cost reimbursable pricing.
Identify THREE safeguards which may help to protect the buyer against these dangers.
Give THREE implied conditions of the Sale of Goods Act (1979) relating to sale by sample.
Give TWO examples of contracts that would not be subject to the Sale of Goods Act (1979).
Identify FIVE guidelines, laid down by the Unfair Contract Terms Act (1977), that help determine whether a contract clause is 'reasonable'.
Define the term 'fixed pricing'.
State THREE advantages of fixed pricing for the purchaser.
Briefly describe FIVE benefits of effective contract management.
State FIVE purposes of a contract.
You are the supply chain manager for a large hospital. Because of the constant need to Reduce costs and maintain high standards, it has been examining the advantages and possible pitfalls of sourcing many of its supplies from some of the emerging economies of the world, particularly those in the Far East. After a time it becomes apparent that your staff are able to negotiate such issues as the price and delivery time of the supplies, but do not know how to go about agreeing contracts with international suppliers with regard to packaging and transport, as well as customs and other duties payable. You are aware of the nature and purposes of Incoterms and you need to make your staff aware of these. You also have in mind some specific Incoterms that you believe would be useful for your organisation.
Explain the purpose of Incoterms and the ways in which their use benefits both buyer and seller.
Outline the provisions of Ex-works (EXW).
Outline the provisions of Free on Board (FOB).
Suggest which Incoterm you would use for the hospital and provide reasons for your choice.
You are the purchasing manager of Merson and Oakes Ltd., a major firm of construction contractors. You realise that none of your staff understand the application of contract price adjustment formulae. You believe that it would be a good idea to use these in long-term contracts, due to increasing economic uncertainty in some parts of the world. Instead of using such formulae, members of staff are either forcing suppliers to accept fixedprice contracts or are accepting suppliers?? requests to enter into cost-plus type contracts. Also, given the long- term nature of many contracts, you are surprised that the staff in the department do not understand retention clauses. You are planning a training session for Merson and Oakes??s staff. As part of your preparation undertake the following:
Describe TWO disadvantages of fixed-price contracts from the buyer??s point of view, for the long-term contracts often entered into by the company.
Explain ONE benefit to Merson and Oakes of using contract price adjustment formulae.
Describe how contract price adjustment formulae can be applied in this case.
Explain how Merson and Oakes can make use of retention clauses.
Explain the role and importance of each of the following essential elements of a contract:
Intention to create legal relations
Explain the difference between a condition of a contract and a warranty.
A Ksh16.4bn contract has been awarded by the Kenyan government to build a six-lane highway to cut congestion in the capital Nairobi.
The upgrade to the 25km section of the ">A8 highway between James Gichuru Road and Rironi will involve widening it to 10.5m with “non motorised transport lanes” running on either side.
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">A8 1 hnrsday, November 30, 1895 Mid-Kttwts News?Biers Court upholds woman's sentence for role in Casey hog farm killings They 11 think vou J. By JANICE HUNT Staff Writer spent a fortune on this gijt jrom ConsoliJateJ Communication Center. (We won t tell if you wont.) especially brutal and heinous." The Phillippis and Sanders, driving Darling's pickup truck, were arrested a couple of days later in Oklahoma. All three pleaded guilty to charges of first-degree murder. Natasha Phillippi argued in appellate court that her 45-year sentence was too harsh because she did not actually commit the murder and she has the potential to be rehabilitated. It was her first criminal offense. Phillippi also claimed that she was under the influence of medication when the crimes were committed, and that she suffers from organic brain disease and Dysphaxia. The appellate court ruled that Clark County Circuit Judge Tracy Resch did not have to consider Phillippi's potential for rehabilitation over the seriousness of the crime. . Phillippi is serving her sentence at the Dwight Correctional Center. Victor Phillippi is at the Menard Correctional Center serving a life sentence with no chance of parole, and Sanders is serving a 100-year sentence at the Joliet Correctional i ; SPRINGFIELD A Casey woman's 45-year sentence for her part in two 1994 Casey murders has been upheld in appellate court. ! Natasha A. Phillippi, 20, was convicted of first-degree murder in the January 1994 deaths of Jerry Barling of Greenup and Wesley Allen Hall of Casey on a Casey hog farm. Phillippi's ex-husband, Victor D. Phillippi, now 23, and their friend Luther J. Sanders, now 24, were also convicted in the shootings. ; SandersworkedwithDarling,42,andHall,20,at the Moriah Pork Palace, where the murders were committed. ; Natasha Phillippi served as a lookout for the murders, and she also bought supplies needed to carry out the crimes. ; Victor Phillippi allegedly wielded the .22 caliber rifle that killed the two men. The bodies were hidden in a hog waste storage pit. ' "It was a clean, quick kill," Clark County State's Attorney David Lewis said previously. "The way they disposed of the bodies and planned it make it CIPS offers et Sextos! Qlj'zzk- ions for opti FREE AT CONSOLIDATED COMMUNICATION CENTER Get a free Ameriteck cellular portable ACP3oo phone when you sign up for Ameriteck cellular'servicc on an eligible two-year plan. You'll also get double Time Pak minutes for two months to help make your life more convenient, productive and secure. TT I I 1 Ml I I 1 I I -r -1 ' Xlo-ho-ho, they 11 never know how much iinvle vou saved. 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In response to declines in LIHEAP funding, CIPS will refrain from disconnecting any LIHEAP-eli-gible customer for non-payment during the period Nov. 1 of this year through March 3 1, 1996. Pohlman said other payment programs and services made available by CIPS include: ; Preferred Due Date Plan, an option which allows qualifying fixed-income customers up to an additional 10 days beyond the due date to pay their energy bill. Deferred Payment Agreement for those customers owing an usually large bill due to extremely cold weather. One option allows customers to make a down payment on a past-due amount, followed by monthly payments on the remaining balance. A second option allows customers with a large current bill to defer part of the pay-. ment over several months. Interested customers should inquire about their possible eligibility. 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1 Inflation Report November 2006
2 Output and supply
3 Chart 3.1 Contributions to quarterly GDP growth (a) (a) GDP at basic prices. This chart uses information published in the preliminary GDP release. (b) ludes output of the energy-extraction sector and electricity, gas and water supply. ludes output of the agriculture and construction sectors as well as rounding differences.
4 Chart 3.2 Growth of manufacturing output and export intensity by sector (a) (a) Based on a division of manufacturing into fourteen sectors. (b) Indicates the difference between average quarterly growth in 2006 and average growth since The series have been normalised (divided by the standard deviation of their respective growth rates) so they are comparable across sectors. Derived from the UK Input-Output Analytical Tables, 1995.
5 Chart 3.3 Private sector output per worker (a) (a) ONS private sector output divided by private sector employment (calculated by subtracting ONS public sector employment from total LFS employment). The estimate for 2006 Q3 is constructed using information in the preliminary GDP release and the assumption that private sector employment in 2006 Q3 grew at the same rate as total employment in the three months to August. (b) Average annual growth since 1997.
6 Chart 3.4 Measures of unemployment and non-employment rates ONS and Bank of England calculations. (a) Percentage of the working-age population. This measure of non-employment weights together the different types of non-employed by a proxy of their likelihood of finding work based on transition rates into employment derived from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). Weights are backward-looking four-quarter moving averages of the quarterly transition rates of each group into employment. (b)Percentage of the economically-active population. Three-month moving average measure. ludes all those actively looking for work and available to start, and those due to start a new job in the next two weeks. Percentage of the sum of the claimant count and workforce jobs.
7 Chart 3.5 The workforce (a) ONS Labour Force Survey. (a) The economically active — the sum of those in work and those actively looking for work.
8 Chart 3.6 Change in the inactivity rate since mid-2004 ONS Labour Force Survey. (a) ludes the inactive population aged 5964+, and those in younger age groups who identify themselves as retired.
9 Chart 3.7 Annual growth in Workforce Jobs
11 Table 3.A Indicators of private service sector activity Correlations (a) Averages with output since 2006 data1997 Q1 Q2 Q3 Oct. ONS (b) n.a. CIPSRBS BCC (d) n.a. BCC, CIPSRBS and ONS. (a) Contemporaneous correlation between survey and output data over the period 1997 Q1–2004 Q4. (b) Defined as quarterly growth of service sector output excluding education, public administration and defence and health and social work. The Q3 estimate is derived using information in the preliminary GDP release. A reading above 50 indicates rising service sector activity compared with the previous period. Quarterly figures are averages of monthly observations. (d) Percentage balance of firms experiencing a rise in domestic sales.
12 Table 3.B Indicators of capacity utilisation within businesses (a) 2006 Averages (b) Q1 Q2 Q3Oct. Manufacturing CBI n.a. BCC (d) n.a. Agents (e) Services BCC (d) n.a. Agents( e) Bank of England, BCC and CBI. (a) All data are non seasonally adjusted. (b) Since 1997 (1998 for the Agents’ scores when the series began). Percentage of firms reporting that their level of output is not below capacity. (d) Net percentage balance of firms reporting they are working at full capacity. (e) Quarterly estimates are averages of monthly observations. The scores refer to likely capacity constraints faced by companies over the next six months. Before January 2005, these scores were based on companies’ current situation.
13 Table 3.C Estimates of migration flows Thousands H1 Net inward migration (a) n.a. of which, Accession Countries (b) n.a n.a. National Insurance numbers n.a. of which, Accession Countries (b) n.a. ">A8 Worker Registration Scheme (d) n.a Department for Work and Pensions, Home Office and ONS. (a) Official ONS estimates of net inward migration. (b) The Accession Countries include Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Number of overseas nationals who have registered for a National Insurance number. These data are constructed on a tax year basis. (d) Nationals from the ">A8 (the Accession Countries, excluding Malta and Cyprus) are required to register under the Worker Registration Scheme upon finding a job. The 2004 observation only considers those who registered after EU accession in May. The 2006 data are not annualised so they only include the raw data for the first two quarters of the year.
14 Table 3.D Employment and survey measures of labour demand Averages since 1997H2H1Q3Oct.averages Official labour market data (a) People employed (b) n.a. Employment rate (d) n.a. Surveys BCC employment intentions (e) n.a. CIPSNTC employment index (f) BCC, CIPSNTC and ONS. (a) Labour Force Survey. (b) Percentage change on a quarter earlier. 2006 Q3 observation based on the three months to August. (d) Total number of employed divided by adult population. (e) Net percentage balance of firms expecting their workforce to increase over the next three months. Manufacturing and service sector balances have been weighted by their respective share in employment. Non seasonally adjusted. (f) Average of the monthly observations. Balance above 50 indicates rising employment.
15 Table 3.E Survey evidence on recruitment difficulties and labour shortages Averages2006 since 1997 (a) Q1Q2Q3Oct. Availability of agency staff (b) KPMGREC: Permanent KPMGREC: Temporary Recruitment difficulties BCC: Manufacturing n.a. BCC: Services n.a. Factors likely to limit output (d) CBI: Skilled labour n.a. CBI: Other labour n.a. BCC, CBI and KPMGREC. (a) Since 1997 Q1 except for KPMGREC survey which is from October (b) Indices. A balance above 50 indicates rising labour market availability. Quarterly estimates are averages of the monthly observations. Percentage of firms reporting difficulties. Non seasonally adjusted. (d) Manufacturing sector. Weighted percentages of respondents. Non seasonally adjusted
On 19 October 2002 the Toronto Star began a series of articles "Race and Crime," (1) making claims that "justice is different for blacks and whites" ("Singled out" 2002), "Blacks arrested by Toronto police are treated more harshly than whites" ("Singled out" 2002), and that "Police target black drivers" ("Police target" 2002: A1). Subsequent stories suggested that Toronto police were engaging in racial profiling, defined by the Star as "the practice of stopping people for little reason other than their skin colour" ("Police target" 2002: ">A8). Published interviews with black community leaders and advocates added the weight of anecdote and presumption to charges of racial profiling, and University of Toronto criminologist Scott Wortley, whose research has focused on race issues in criminal justice, deemed the Star analysis "clear evidence of what, until now, has been based largely on assumption" ("Singled out" 2002: A13).
Representatives of the police responded angrily, denying accusations of singling out blacks. The Toronto Police Service commissioned an independent review of the Star's analysis by a prominent criminal lawyer (Alan Gold) and a University of Toronto sociology professor (Edward Harvey) (see Harvey and Liu 2003; Harvey 2003; Gold and Harvey 2003). Their review concluded that the Star analysis was "junk science" and the conclusions of the articles "completely unjustified, irresponsible and bogus slurs" to be "put down at once" (Gold and Harvey 2003). The police union went further and on 17 January 2003 launched a $2.7 billion class action libel suit on behalf of its 7,200 members ("Police union" 2003). The furor has since spread throughout the Ontario criminal justice system, with judges, attorneys, crown prosecutors, and police officials making additional controversial statements supporting or refuting the allegations of racial profiling in the criminal justice system. The media have given considerable attention to the issue, as befits its renewed prominence in public debate, but perhaps also in defence of one of their own. The debate is likely to be given further play in municipal, provincial, and federal election campaigns.
Whatever else may come out of these events, it is already clear that the Toronto Police Service has now joined the ranks of North American police organizations that must now devote considerable effort to addressing accusations that they engage in racial profiling. The development of data collection and analysis systems to respond to accusations of racial bias in policing has become something of a growth industry in the U.S. (e.g., Ramirez, McDevitt, and Farrell 2000; McMahon, Garner, Davis, and Kraus 2002; Fridell, Lunney, Diamond, and Kubu 2001: 118; Engel, Calnon, Bernard 2002: 250, 262-263). Widespread public belief that police engage in racial profiling undermines public confidence in the police, as well as the credibility of the testimony and evidence submitted by police officers in criminal proceedings. It may now have become difficult to prosecute criminal cases involving accused persons from groups claiming police bias, without extensive expert testimony on the issue of racial profiling. In Toronto (as elsewhere across North America), the issue of racial profiling has become a significant threat to the ability of police to maintain order, ensure public safety, and prosecute those accused of criminal offences. This issue also affects the ability of the courts to weigh evidence appropriately, assess criminal responsibility, and determine appropriate sanctions.
The evidence for claims of racial profiling
What evidence is there that Toronto Police engage in what is called racial profiling? The claims made by the Toronto Star were based on the newspaper's own analysis of arrest data from the Toronto police's Criminal Information Processing System (CIPS), obtained under a freedom of information request. The data were recorded between late 1996 (when CIPS was first implemented on a trial basis) and early 2002. …
Next Thing CHIP board and corresponding PocketCHIP portable Linux computer have been relatively popular due to their inexpensive price for the feature set, as for $9, you’d get an Allwinner R8 ARM Cortex ">A8 processor, 512MB flash, 4GB NAND flash, WiFi & Bluetooth connectivity, and plenty of IOs, which made it very attractive for IoT applications compared to other cheap boards such as Raspberry Pi Zero and Orange Pi One. The first board was mostly designed for hobbyists, but company has now designed a new lower profile system-on-module called CHIP Pro based on Next Thing GR8 SIP combining Allwinner R8 SoC with 256MB DDR3 RAM that can be used for easy integration into your own hardware project.
While the original CHIP board exposed full USB ports and interface for video signal, the new CHIP Pro is specifically designed for IoT with the following specs:
The module is pre-loaded with the company’s Linux based GadgetOS operating system, but custom firmware flashing is available for orders of 1,000 modules or more. Potential applications include physical computing, voice recognition, smart consumer devices, portable audio devices and so on. Software support should be identical to what you already get in CHIP board, and you can already find some hardware design files specific to CHIP Pro on Github including datasheets for the system-on-module and Allwinner GR8 SIP.
In order to help you getting started as fast as possible, a development kit is also available with a baseboard and two CHIP Pro modules. The baseboard include a 5V-23V power jack, a 3.5mm audio jack, a micro USB port, a USB host port, some LEDs, a power button, and female headers for easy access to all IOs.
CHIP Pro SoM will start selling for $16 in December of this year without minimum order quantity, and no volume discount, e.g. if you buy 1 million SoMs, you’d have to pay 16 million dollars. One issue with CHIP board is that if you asked Allwinner for a quote for module used in the board, it would cost more or about the same as the board itself. AllwinnerNext Thing GR8 is completely different, as you can actually buy it for $6 (including AXP-209 PMIC) to integrate into your own project. The development kit is available now for $49. More technical details and purchase links can be found on the product page.
Thanks to Nanik for the tip.